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Home > Flying the Plane > Does a jet aircraft need to constantly adjust nose down to follow the curvature of the earth?
Does a jet aircraft need to constantly adjust nose down to follow the curvature of the earth?
Flying - Flying the Plane
Wednesday, 11 February 2015 16:51
 
Planet Earth seen from Space
 
Dear Capt Lim;

I have limited flying experience (two introductory flight lessons in a Cessna and several commercial flights, including some Transatlantic trips), so please excuse my ignorance.

I was wondering; since the earth is spherical and the curvature is approximately 6 foot "drop" for every three miles i.e. a 6 foot person will disappear over the horizon 3 miles away, does a jet aircraft need to be constantly adjusted nose down to adjust for the curvature of the earth?

In other words, if a plane was trimmed for straight and level flight, would it "gain altitude" while flying as the earth surface "fell away" due to the curvature?

Thanks for your time and consideration.

Johnson

Hi Johnson,

This is an interesting question. A plane will fly at a constant altitude and will follow the curvature of the earth and would not gain altitude during a level flight.

For instance, if a plane is cleared to maintain 35,000 feet, by regulations, the pilot must maintain that level based on a standard barometric pressure setting (29.92 inHg or 1013 millibars)   Hence it would stay at that altitude (FL350) because the pilot is either controlling the plane manually or has engaged the autopilot to achieve that.

There are two basic instruments that enable this procedure - an altimeter and a vertical speed indicator (VSI). The VSI provides short term changes in pressure and indicates whether the plane is climbing or descending. These changes will give an indication to the pilot so that he would level the plane to maintain 35,000 feet. He will adjust the controls very slightly by use of the elevator and trims. This can be performed automatically by the autopilot as well. As such, the flight controls are constantly moving very subtly to maintain the correct attitude.

You said that, if the plane was trimmed for a straight and level flight, it would ‘gain altitude’ while flying as the earth surface ‘fell away’ due to the curvature of the earth. Well, that would probably happen in a perfectly motionless atmosphere where the plane would fly dead ahead, and over time gain altitude (provided it has sufficient thrust) as the earth curves away from under the airplane.

In reality, a constant altitude must be kept using the standard pressure and that means a fixed distance to the earth center of gravity is maintained, making the path of the plane a curved one.

So, a plane is not flying a straight line - geometrically speaking!


Flying over Planet Earth

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MR , Low-rated comment [Show]
Level Flight
In fact, there is no real "level flight".
Every flight path is a curve line.
What we should consider a "level flight" is the one when the atmospheric pressure remains constant keeping the plane at the same height all the time.
Carlos Roberto Abreu Moreira , 13 Feb, 2015
wrong assumptions , Low-rated comment [Show]
I'm afraid I'm still a little confused!
Dear Captain,

I'm afraid I'm still a little confused.

The earth is 25,000 miles in circumference curving 8inches per mile squared. If a pilot wanted to maintain altitude at a typical cruising speed of 500 miles per hour you'd have to constantly descend 2777 ft (over half a mile) every minute otherwise you'd be way higher than expected. If as you say this adjustment is performed automatically by the autopilot surely as a passenger you'd be aware of the constant descent? 2777 ft every minute is a considerable drop and would not in my opinion go unnoticed.

Thanks for your time and consideration.

Dharmabro


Dharmabro , 22 May, 2015
I'm afraid I'm still a little confused.
Dear Captain,

I'm afraid I'm still a little confused.

The earth is 25,000 miles in circumference curving 8inches per mile squared. If a pilot wanted to maintain altitude at a typical cruising speed of 500 miles per hour you'd have to constantly descend 2777 ft (over half a mile) every minute otherwise you'd be way higher than expected. If as you say this adjustment is performed automatically by the autopilot surely as a passenger you'd be aware of the constant descent? 2777 ft every minute is a considerable drop and would not in my opinion go unnoticed.

Thanks for your time and consideration.

Dharmabro
Dharmabro , 22 May, 2015
Mr
But wouldn't the passengers feel the constant "dip down" of the plane as the pilot constantly makes adjustments? The speed a plane travels would, I imagine, mean the plane would be gaining hundreds of feet in altitude every few seconds.
cari , 02 Sep, 2015
Level Flight
Or the alternative, the earth is flat.
M1k3 , 20 Sep, 2015
curvature is wrong , Low-rated comment [Show]
follow up
any word from the captain?
jake , 18 Nov, 2015
re: curvature is wrong
no its not. its 8 inches per mile squared. if it was just 8" per mile it would be a long downward plain. the formula for the curve for 1 miles is 1x1x8=8 inches. for 2 miles its 2x2x8=32 inches, for 3 miles it is 3x3x8=72 inches. it gets real big real fast. for 10 miles it would be 10x10x8=800 inches or 66.66 ft.
flying from seattle, wa to new york city is 2857.6 miles by air. that is 1031 miles of curvature the plane would have to encounter in a 6 hour flight. that means the plane would have to descend i have talked to several arline pilots. they said once the plane gets to crusing altitude they make no corrections, as if they were flying on a flat plain. they do not make constant downward corrections in altitude at least not of that severity
ben richardson , 24 Nov, 2015
LEVEL FLIGHT
An aircraft flies at a constant pressure altitude and thus maintains the same relative distance from sea level at all times. If it were to climb as it flew along it would be registering a decreasing pressure which it does not.
Joe , 27 Nov, 2015
Mr.
Okay, Similar question.... How does an airplane's Gyroscopic Artificial Horizon account for the Earth's curvature? As I understand it - a gyroscope keeps absolute position and the aircraft rotates around it, allowing the instrument to show the plane's attitude on the artificial horizon... But, logic would dictate that if I flew around the world, the artificial horizon should show me upside down half the time... What does it do to account for this, and prevent erroneous readings?

Steve In Indiana
Steve , 01 Dec, 2015
Mr
Okay, Similar question.... How does an airplane's Gyroscopic Artificial Horizon account for the Earth's curvature? As I understand it - a gyroscope keeps absolute position and the aircraft rotates around it, allowing the instrument to show the plane's attitude on the artificial horizon... But, logic would dictate that if I flew around the world, the artificial horizon should show me upside down half the time... What does it do to account for this, and prevent erroneous readings?

Steve In Indiana
Steve , 01 Dec, 2015
Curvature calculation
Curvature is approximately 8" per squared mile so in 3 miles it will drop 6 ft.
Joe BLow , 01 Dec, 2015
well , Low-rated comment [Show]
Correct Curvature
The curvature is not 8 inches times the distance since you cannot form a sphere that way. Only the first mile is 8 inches then it grows exponentially. The correct math is 8 inches times the distance squared. So three miles would be 3 x 3 x 8 = 72 inches. At 500 miles the earth will fall away 166,495 feet. If the plane is traveling 500 mph, the earth is falling away at a rate of 2,775 feet per minute. If autopilot is off, the pilot must reduce altitude by 2,775 feet per minute or 46 feet per second to maintain 35,000 feet. Isn't that much greater then descent rates when landing?


Thanks for your time and consideration.
CS , 28 Dec, 2015
...
500 miles an hour divided by 60 mins per hour=8.33 miles a min multiped by 8 inches a mile =66.67 inches a min = 5 and half feet per minutes downward descent needed
Professor , 12 Jan, 2016
Math, how does it work?
Say the plane is traveling @ 600mph. That means they are traveling 10 miles per minute. With a curvature of 2' per 3 miles, the plane would need to descend a little over 6' per minute to maintain altitude. I doubt passengers are going to feel that.
Dunno , 16 Jan, 2016
curvature is right.
Curvature equation under 1,000 miles is: miles squared times 8 divided by 12 for answers in feet.
For a distance of three miles the curve results in a ~6 foot drop. 3X3X8/12=6 feet. Did you follow lakawak? A linear drop in 8 inches per mile is the slope angle not a curve. A curve is inversely proportional to the distance.
Johnson , 19 Jan, 2016
Curvature
Seeing as we're on this topic, I will try and help with the basic arithmetic part. I realize it's been a while since anyone's responded to this thread, but I figured I'd give something for people who keep trying to 'prove' (poorly) that the earth is flat

When it comes to the curvature, if the estimates that you have to account for approximately 8 inches for every mile...

Traveling at 500mph, that's approximately 8.3 miles per minute. Which means that at a curvature of 8 inches per mile equates to a change of 66.7 inches every minute. VERY different than the claim that you'd have to move 2777 feet to account for curvature every minute.
Jesse , 21 Jan, 2016
Level Flight , Low-rated comment [Show]
...
if the plane is adjusting its height to the curvature of the planet why are persistent contrails always perfectly horizontal?
prutt , 12 Feb, 2016
Two words
Newtonian gravity - a cannon fired will not continue in a linear direction due to the constant pull of the Earth's gravity. To break from the Earth's gravity, an aeroplane must achieve higher speed, which is not possible if the aircraft is on autopilot.
Daniel , 21 Feb, 2016
Ship Captain ?????
Does a gyroscope on a normal global commercial flight adjust it's attitude to the curving suface of the Earth (Gravity) while underway or does it remain in the same (horizontal) attitude as takeoff and then have to be readjusted upon landing

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Anthony B , 28 Feb, 2016
Contrails are not horizontal , Low-rated comment [Show]
Also
Everything is relative.
What do you have as a point of reference when on a plane?
How would you possibly be able to perceive such a gradual descent? And you aren't even descending relative the ground.
It's not as if you have a perfectly straight line drawn in the sky outside the plane window to judge your exact flight path.

The altitude is judged by the planes distance from the ground, so as the earth drops away enough thrust is applied to maintain a set distance from the ground until you want to get closer to the ground to land at which point the thrust is decreased.

Dan , 19 Mar, 2016
Earth Spin
Dear Captain,

How do pilots account for the Earth spinning when landing the plane in a north or south direction? Or are there no runways running north or south?
Pete , 26 Mar, 2016
Curvatrometer
I propose a flight experiment. Construct a perfect straight hollow tube 100 miles in length with an inside diameter 3-5 times a planes wing span. Position the tube 100 feet off the ground of an ocean shore line while being projected level towards the horizon. Have a pilot fly a plane into the the tube and keep from touching any side. According to the curvature of the earth the tube will be 100 feet above the ground at the starting point and approximately 6700 feet above the surface of the water at the finish. Because gravity keeps a plane at a constant altitude relative to the ground and the tube is not following the curvature of the surface of the water. How will the pilot adjust the attitude of the plane to account for gravity pulling in keeping the plane from touching the bottom of the tube? We are to believe that a plane can fly relatively straight and level and gravity and air pressure will pull the plane perpendicular around the globe. I think it would be obvious if the above experiment could be done the plane is not accounting for curvature and gravity. The surface of the water is flat because water always finds it's level. Gravity is not pulling the plane around the globe because the surface of what we live on is flat. Also, on a globe as an observer gained altitude the horizon will fall away however no matter how high you climb the horizon always rises to eye level. Last thing when a plane's gyros are spun up before taking off after 6000 miles of flight the gyro will be at a 90 degree position relative to start which should read as a nose dive however no indication of that occurs. The earth is not spinning nor round. Happy Easter!! smilies/smiley.gifsmilies/smiley.gif
CS , 27 Mar, 2016
Maths
The maths is not the same on the paper as the human perception. If you have a starting point (lets call it A), and after every mile there is a next point B, C, D, and so on..even though a drop on a curve is 8in per mile squared, after you reach point B, the drop is only 8in for you after next mile..and at point C it is again 8in per mile and so on. At every respective point, you are completely leveled out. That is why you should not look at the starting point A, but only drop from your present position. That is why 8in per mile squared argument is not valid in respect to one's perception.
Seaman , 06 Apr, 2016
...
The Earth is flat!
Nice guy , 21 Apr, 2016
curve
Ok...The earth is a ball of sorts.. it curves... I dare everyone to go find a long flat road...say one mile worth... have an object or person 6 feet tall stand at the one mile mark. Look at that object/ person with binoculars and you will see their feet/ shoes/ base.. curvature.... 2 ft per mile? You should not be able to see their feet.. ok... go two miles.. you will see their feet..ok three miles... you will see their feet.. on lake Michigan I can see lake shore drive from new buffalo mi with binocluars...30 miles x 2 ft.. 60 ft.. 3 stories .. doesn't happen. Don't just believe what you are told. go test it for yourself..
Have we ben lied to. , 23 May, 2016
Time to wake up...
Flat Earth
Answer , 06 Jun, 2016
...
Level flight is flight that maintains a set distance from the center of gravity, it is not flight in a straight line. Gravity and lift are opposing forces that raise or lower the plane until it reaches an equilibrium, from then on the plane will fly level (baring a change in lift) so the plane's path will follow the curve of the earth.
Fred Derf , 06 Jun, 2016
Mr
How does the giroscope that senses the horizontal for an artificial horizon cause the aircraft to make a level flight over say 1 mile or more of flight path? The flat earthers don't need a correction of 8ins per mile, but I do!
Help!
Sincerely Aldred
Aldred , 23 Jun, 2016
space itself is what is curved
You aren't DESCENDING at all, you are flying a smooth geodesic line which is a curve because of Gravity, which maintains a constant altitude level MSL (Mean Sea Level). This geodesic follows the line of constant acceleration due to gravity (technically, density changes in the Earth would cause it to vary slightly but these changes are microscopic compared to the buffeting the plane receives from the air itself - it takes extremely precise measurements to detect these subtle differences such as being done by the GRACE project at NASA). http://www.nasa.gov/audience/f...Grace.html

Because the Earth has curved space around itself, due to mass, it bends the very concept of a "straight line" into a circle around itself. If the plane didn't follow this geodesic it would be climbing or descending. This is what DEFINES ascending/descending.

Ignoring secondary changes such as the weight of the plane (as it burns fuel) and the atmosphere itself (air density is constantly changing) then to remain at a fixed altitude the plane (pilot or autopilot) has to adjust the controls to maintain a specific amount of LIFT to offset exactly the constant acceleration due to gravity -- that amount of LIFT doesn't change as you fly around the world. The plane cannot tell the difference between "straight-and-level" and this geodesic - it IS straight-and-level from that inertial reference frame. Every bit of excess LIFT causes the plane to climb and any shortage causes it to descend, that is all there is to it.

You guys talking about having to descend so many thousands of feet per minute are completely and utterly confused about how gravity works - what an incredible indictment of our educational system. I weep.
DimSum , 29 Jun, 2016
flat earth
I have listened to all the nonsense answers about some invisible velcro attaching everything to the earth except for a 4 year olds helium filled balloon and clouds etc ......the earth is flat period and we have been lied to ......

never mind the constant comparisons to imagine you were on 3 moving walkways or the endless calculations to achieve this incredible magical answer ...what feels right to you ? the earth is spinning or its not the earth is round and efts all other basic principles or its flat the a calm lake is actually curved or is a river running up or downhill of the earth at 8 inches per mile squared ..........what feels right ...? because i see what i see and i feel what i feel ...and no math or 12 paragraph answer or someone telling me i am stupid will change that ...
dc , 02 Jul, 2016
Flater Earther , Low-rated comment [Show]
Speed
There are planes going 2000 mph. Do they need to adjust down ? If no, at what speed is direct adjustment necessary ?
Vladimir , 27 Jul, 2016
plane has already defied gravity
So if a plane can move up/down left and right at speeds of 500miles per hr then it would have overthrown gravity in the first place.If the plane engines shut off at some point gravity would overpower the plane and take over pulling the plane to the ground. To overcome the gravity the plane must gain speed and create lift.At the moment the plane wheels leave the ground gravity is no longer effecting the plane.As we all know a very large amount of speed is required to defy gravity as im sure each of you has experienced sitting in a plane as it takes off.
That being the case a plane flying horizontal at 60000 ft moving at 500 miles per hr would have to have its nose pointing down to maintain any elevation if the earth is round because there is no gravity force in effect based on the objects weight and speed.a 100 mile long flight from sea level produces 6700 vertical ft of drop to sea level 100 miles away. a plane flying at 500 ft has no gravity acting on it as it has already defied it.the plane would gain altitude of 6700 ft in 60 minutes. (single engine cessna). the planes altimeter would rise at a rate of 110ft per minute. in 5 minutes the altimeter would read 1050ft.
of course the planes altimeter does not do this because sealevel is flat everywhere.
steve , 30 Jul, 2016
Earth gyro (really)
There are 4 types of gyros. One is called a Earth Gyro: "Earth gyro has freedom of movement in all three planes but is held in one plane by Earths gravity. You will find this gyro in an Attitude Indicator." FYI, attitude indicator = artificial horizon in an airplane instrumentation. See:
http://www.experimentalaircraft.info/articles/aircraft-gyroscopic-principles.php
DrObvious , 24 Aug, 2016
Also..
And the question was quite reasonably: "Does the autopilot compensate, and if-so - does the pilot compensate when autopilot is off"?
In any case, 'thrust' is not used to maintain a set distance from the ground, thrust is used to maintain a set speed.
The altitude is judged by the planes distance from the ground? WTF? Altitude IS the planes distance from the ground!
If you constantly reduce thrust to maintain distance from the ground - you'd soon be at zero thrust due to the exponentially increasing distance from the ground (1st mile .6ft, 10 miles 66ft, 20 miles 264ft, 30 miles 595ft, 40 miles 1,060ft, 100 miles 6,610ft).
Defactio , 29 Aug, 2016
Gravity and centripetal force are at play here
I realize this is an old thread but the captain is wrong here by suggesting if the plane had thrust and no corrections were made, the plane will not gain altitude. Gravity and centripetal force are at play here. An example is that of tether ball where the plane is the ball and the rope gravity. Same thing is happening with a satellite otherwise it would float off into space rather than orbiting the earth.
Benjamin M , 07 Sep, 2016
Gyroscopes in a 3 axis gimbal
A gyroscope will maintain its position in space and any change to the gimbal position will not alter it . Any plane auto pilot relying on a gyroscope horizon can be sure that a gyroscope never lies. People lie , a gyroscope not only proves positive all the nonsense of a ball earth also shows the impossibility of any spinning of the ground . Pause , take a breath and take in the the facts a gyroscope is the ultimate lie detector
Darcysmoke , 09 Sep, 2016
Rate of pitch down
Yes the aircraft does have to pitch down to follow the curvature of the Earth. But the rate of pitch is so slow it is imperceptible and absorbed completely by maintaining altitude by reference to the Altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator.

At 450 Kts it takes 48 hours to fly around the Earth. A circumnavigation requires the Aircraft to pitch down 360 degrees.

Pitching at the rate of 360 degrees every 48 hours is four times slower than the movement of the hour hand on a clock. You cannot see the Hour hand moving at normal speed. Much less when it moves four times slower.

It equates to 1 degree of pitch down every 8 minutes (flying at 450 Kts)

This slow rate of movement cannot be seen or felt by any person on Earth.

As for the Artificial Horizon. Yes it does contain a gyroscope that remains rigid in space but it also contains correcting mechanisms that can correct many degrees of error each minute. Again the small adjustment of 1 degree in 8 minutes is completely absorbed by the smaller more frequent corrections.
Wolfie6020 , 18 Sep, 2016
Responding to Well
I refute your claim Well. I am a 10,000 hour pilot and fly Corporate Aircraft that operate up to 51,000 Ft. From the high 40's the Earth's curvature is clearly visible.

Additionally you would benefit from researching the word "Cabotage" which explains the reason for many non direct routes.

Finally, try to understand the formula for calculating a Great Circle. This is based on Spherical math and works perfectly for the Southern Hemisphere. This is actual proof the Earth is not Flat.

Wolfie6020 , 18 Sep, 2016
...
Also, the human body adjusts over time to the inputs (pressures, forces from angles) and a person "normalizes". If you fly in a bank, long enough, without visual points of reference, it seems normal to you as if you are in straight and level flight. This is why pilots are strenuously trained to trust the instruments. You ARE always climbing, falling, banking etc. during flight, but if done gradually and in relation to the earth surface, it seems very normal and is not greatly noticeable.
T2 , 22 Sep, 2016
Silly math
This is silly math being done. On pure geometrical terms, drawing a straght line away from the circle will result in the distance increasing squared. However the plane moves still relatively slow. Basically inch per inch or foot per foot. So any curvature adjustment would be done on that level. Also please note that the virtual horizon actually would fall down if you ascent upwards (or straight as oyu would like it) calling for a (auto)pilot adjustment.
xcver , 27 Sep, 2016
AirTraffic Controller confirms able to see Aircraft from 350 miles away
Able to see aircraft flying at 45000 feet 350 miles away on the scope, thats impossible on a globe. My friends on this show, talked to them 10 mins before the broadcast and one is an owner of his own aviation school, and Dale FAA Certified Ex Navy Traccon Air Traffic Controller confirms No Coriolis effect and Earth Stationary Flat Level Plane. The End. #GlobeEarthDecimated https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jML1pH0CX0
Sar Archer , 02 Oct, 2016
How interesting
What ridiculous answers. Let's just face facts, huh? I hate it just as much as you do, but we are living in the "Earth Realm" or "Third Dimension" if you will; not on a planet. Just ask Nikola Tesla.
Keith , 09 Oct, 2016
this requires magical thinking to understand
in other words, just call it gravity and go back to sleep, don't think about it.
ball spinner , 22 Oct, 2016
Hmmmmm.
The object moving from its own thrust on a flat earth would be built to stay strait wile flying while being pulled down from bouient force. Why cant the same be said of the plane being built for the globe model? I guess im asking someone who knows how planes are built?
Squeegee , 24 Nov, 2016
altitude and pressure measuring
Seattle to NY is 2831 miles. Vertical drop is 1017 miles(2831x2831x0.67ft(8inches)/5280ft per mile
4hrs flight time equates to 4.24 mile per minute or 22374 ft per minute or 373ft per second of vertical drop due to earth curvature.

I challenge any pilot or aerospace engineer to specify what mechanical system on an airplane automatically adjusts for this constant vertical drop requirement.

The pressure reading thing is an accuracy reading for calibrating the altimeter because pilots discovered that the altimeter reading changes with pressure. If the pressure reading changes the pilot will adjust the altimeter to account for the new pressure. For example the reading is 30000ft at xxx pressure.
The pressure reading is based on the takeoff airport location and altitude at that location.

After 10minutes of flying at 600miles/hr. horizontally there is 223740ft(40miles)of vertical drop from curvature. It would take the plane 7minutes with it nose down at 600miles/hr to get back to the 30000ft.

I have never been on a plane that goes on a rollercoaster ride up and down every 7 minutes for 4hrs.

This is simple science and math.

Since the plane is already defying gravity by lifting into the air and maintaining a speed gravity has no effect.

Gravity would takeover and pull the plane towards earth when the speed reduced to a place where the airplane weight fall force is greater allowing gravity to takeover.

Calling all pilots and aerospace engineers to specify the mechanical system required to balance the rollercoaster.
pressure and gravity science is not relevant.












smilies/kiss.gif
steve c , 29 Nov, 2016
N/S
If you fly from north to south in a perfect line at 500 MPH and travel 500 Miles not including take off and landing this will take you 1 hour after 1 hour you wont of travelled in a straight line as the earth would of rotated between 700 and 1000 miles away from you correct or not
Dan , 09 Dec, 2016
Math
The correct math is not 8 inches per mile squared, it is Pythagoras.

Subtract the hypotenuse from the radius.

Although 8 inches per mile squared is close for shorter distances, it doesn't work for long distances like 1000 miles.
Eric , 22 Dec, 2016
Gravity is radially away.
Guys, gravity acts radially away from the center of the earth. So a plane flying at a set altitude will not have to adjust anything because he will always be pulled to the center of the earth.

Think of ball swinging around on a string.the ball does not need to take any action to keep spinning other than moving forward.


Casey , 02 Jan, 2017
No one answered the question
You guys are all ignorant and not answering the REAL question. I'm not a flatard and I do observe the earth to be a sphere (almost a sphere) based off of rational and logical reasoning. But this is one area I'm actually trying to figure out myself but just don't know enough of the science to explain it properly.

All you guys are saying is what the plane might or might not be doing. Example the only thing i keep seeing is the autopilot keeps it level, or the plane maintains a optimal pressure so it knows how far away it is from sea level. THESE DO NOT ANSWER QUESTIONS to people who are confused about this stuff when they're all caught up in flat-earth conspiracies!!

You cannot explain this with Newtonians cannon ball because the ball doesnt have fucking wings.

If a fighter jet is flying at a cruising altitude and keeps his hand steady on the control stick would the jet slowly gain altitude??? That's the question. Of course they have instruments helping them TO KEEP their altitude but are they pitching downwards in doing so??? If not then how does the science work in that?

I don't expect any of you to explain because frankly I don't think no one here is smart enough to know the real question in the first place.

Ciao
SAM I AM , 04 Jan, 2017
Keeping a constant altitude has nothing to do with earth's center of gravity
Dear Capt.:

Although you were right about both the altimeter and vsi working solely on air pressure differences, you implied these instruments somehow track the earth's center of gravity when you stated: "In reality, a constant altitude must be kept using the standard pressure and that means a fixed distance to the earth center of gravity is maintained..."

Actually, neither instrument tracks the earth's center of gravity, nor is either instrument effected by it. The instruments merely sense pressure differences to that found at sea level. The aircraft's elevator keeps it at a constant altitude, not "standard pressure". Air pressure is sensed by the altimeter, which then converts it into a visual indication of altitude above sea level (or vertical speed, in the case of the vsi).

The bottom line is, the operation of the altimeter remains an un-debunked fact that tends to prove the earth is flat.

Globalists have their own un-debunked arguments that tend to support a spherical earth - trying to explain away the true nature of an altimeter is silly (especially for a pilot) and, ultimately, undermines globalists in general.

BTW, I am a pilot. However, the altimeter basics that tend to prove the earth is flat are simple enough for pretty much anyone to understand.
Neither Flat Earth Nor Globe , 13 Jan, 2017
Autopilot vs. Trim
You stated: "He will adjust the controls very slightly by use of the elevator and trims. This can be performed automatically by the autopilot as well. As such, the flight controls are constantly moving very subtly to maintain the correct altitude." In autopilot the control surfaces may be constantly moving, however, that is not what happens when a plane is trimmed with autopilot off.

All trim does is keep the elevator in a fixed position during flight. With a pilot's hands off the yoke or trim, a plane on a fixed heading would generally gain altitude over time if the earth were a globe - but this does not happen. An observant pilot knows that fact - however, whether that pilot is in a position to admit that fact publicly or not is a whole other discussion.
Neither Flat Earth Nor Globe , 13 Jan, 2017
Disappointing........
I've read the entire thread twice and an disappointed that amidst all the math discussion, no one has bothered to answer the critical question poised by "Steve in Indiana" on 12/01/15 regarding the functioning of a gyroscope. Assuming a gyroscope actually functions the way EVERY text book says it does, the simple answer to Steve's question is "Yes, if you fly around the world the gyroscope will show you upside down half the time." Now, since it obviously doesn't, think about WHY it doesn't...
Zonier Toole , 16 Jan, 2017
Mr.
There is almost no curvature, because the Earth is flat, simple as is. Look at the so called New Standard Map of the World published in ENgland in 1892. North pole is the centre , all around the flat surface is Antarctic Rim or wall of ice. Matrix is over.
Midgard Earth , 17 Feb, 2017

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