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Home > Flying on the Boeing 777 > Auto and Manual Landing on the Boeing 777
Auto and Manual Landing on the Boeing 777
Flying - Flying on the Boeing 777
Thursday, 25 October 2007 05:47

Dear Captain Lim,

Good Day.

I have a few queries with regard to your FAQ on Autopilot/ILS.

In FAQ “How does a pilot execute an auto landing during bad weather in a Boeing 777?

"If a pilot wishes to manually fly the ILS to hone his flying skills, he is restricted to fly to a minimum of 200 feet above ground level and a visibility of 550 meters. Beyond that, he must seek the help of the machine! In other words, the airplane must be auto landed with the help of computers.

What happens when the computers fail at the critical moment? So, you still need human beings to save the day! Pilots are the back ups to machines. Hence, aircrew must undergo a thorough course in order to perform this task."

1) Does this mean the airplane must be auto landed or auto fly BELOW 200 feet?

2) When computer fail below 200 feet, pilots have to back up the machines. Why pilots are not allowed to fly below 200 feet on a normal day to hone his skills when the circumstance of a computer failing below 200 feet arises?

3) Are pilots officially being allowed to fly under 200 ft manually?

In
FAQ "Are some pilots that skillful in flying the Instrument Landing System",

"When the airplane is perfectly aligned with the runway centerline, it does not mean that the airplane is performing an auto-land. If a pilot is not qualified or the runway is not certified to accept auto-landing, he merely allows the autopilot to fly the plane up to 200 feet above ground level and then disengage the automation. He would thereafter *hand fly* the plane until the touch down on the runway."

4) Why is it in this case that a pilot is allowed to fly below 200 feet?

Many thanks.

Regards

Yong

Hi Yong,


1. This paragraph is stated in the context of an ILS approach in IMC – meaning total cloud cover and the pilot cannot see anything ahead. On a Cat 1 approach, the lowest height the pilot can hand fly the plane is up to 200 feet. Yes, below 200 feet in IMC, only a qualified pilot rated on auto-landing is allowed to continue with the landing (with the aid of the computer of course – as no human can safely fly the plane to touch down when he can*t really see the runway!)

2. A pilot can manually fly below 200 feet only if the weather is fine and the visibility is good. So when the computer fails below 200 feet, he takes over and flies by looking out and not on the instruments anymore. If he cannot see the runway because of poor visibility, he must abort the landing and go around.

3. As mentioned above, pilots are allowed to fly below 200 feet manually on a Cat 1 ILS approach only if they can see the runway (In VMC and not IMC)

4. Only a person qualified to perform auto-landing can legally use the automation to land the plane by the aid of the computers below 200 feet. If not, he must disengage the automation and fly the plane manually ONLY if the weather is fine and the visibility is good. In this case, he has not breached any rules. He did not make use of the automation (because he is not qualified).

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Comments (5)

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is this a chat site or an actual intelligent source?
Larry , 06 Jan, 2011
Intelligent source
Everything I have read on these responses has been spot on to what I have heard from airline pilots that I know. In regards to autoland being required for CatII and CatIII approaches I believe this can be negated if the aircraft is fitted with a Heads-Up Display (HUD). I know that Southwest Airlines has installed HUDs on their aircraft and I do not believe they have autoland installed but are still allowed to fly CatIII approaches, but I am not 100% sure.
Brandon , 03 May, 2011
...
Does the pilot have to use automation untill 200 ft if he cant autoland it? Basically can the pilot fly manually all the way till touchdown from the start of the approach even though there are clouds? Or is he forced to use AP till 200ft?
Richard , 05 May, 2011
Auto Landing versus Manual Landing
If the pilot does a manual landing (meaning no automation), he flies the plane all the way manually until 200 feet(Cat 1). If he sees the runway, he lands the plane manually or else he must go around. So if clouds obstruct his vision, he must not land.

If the pilot performs an auto landing (he must be qualified, certified and recent) he can then fly as low as 100 feet, 50 feet, 20 feet or even to touch down on automation provided he is qualified (Rated Cat II, Cat IIIA or Cat IIIB)
Captain Lim , 06 May, 2011
Auto Landing versus Manual Landing
Regarding your last paragraph, you said that if the pilot performs an auto landing, he can fly as low as 100 feet, 50 feet, or 20 feet. By "he can fly" meaning he himself manually or automatically? And what happens when he's at "100 feet, 50 feet, or 20 feet"??
Richard , 09 May, 2011

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